A very important tool in our everyday life are the LiveUSB GNU/Linux flash drives.
We keep an updated collection of several GNU/Linux flavors/distributions (Fedora, CentOS, (L/X)Ubuntu, Kali etc.) that are used depending on the scenario.
The command we use is the following:
sudo dd bs=4M if=path/to/OS.iso of=/dev/sdX conv=fdatasync;
dd allows you to convert and copy a file and we use it to copy the ISO file of the operating system onto the USB flash drive.
- You need to
unmountthe USB flash drive before formatting it, e.g.:
sudo umount /dev/sdXY;
- You need to use the device filename and not a partition filename:
e.g. You need to use
- You need to use either the
rootaccount or execute the command with
- If you do not know the filename associated with your flash drive, use an application like the following ones to determine which
/devfile is mapped to the USB flash drive:
sudo fdisk -l;
The parameters we use are the following:
bs=SIZE_IN_BYTESdefines up to how many bytes should be read and written at a time.
In our case we used 4 Megabytes (4M).
if=INPUT_FILEdefines the file to be read, we use this parameter to point to the OS ISO file that we want to write on the USB drive.
of=OUTPUT_FILEdefines the filename where the data is to be written in.
In GNU/Linux, devices are accessible like files as well so we used
/dev/sdXhere that happened to be the device file assigned to our USB device.
conv=CONVSconverts the file as per the comma separated symbol list
fdatasyncphysically writes output file data before finishing, we use this parameter to be sure that all I/O operations are done well before
ddterminates, this way we are certain that our USB device will be ready to use as soon as the application is done.