What kind of nut do I need to fit a camera tripod screw?

To attach a camera to a tripod, you typically need a nut with a 1/4-inch-20 thread, the standard size for most camera tripod mounts. This size means the nut has a 1/4-inch diameter and 20 threads per inch. Some larger cameras and equipment may use a 3/8-inch-16 thread, but this is less common for standard cameras. Make sure to check your specific camera’s requirements to ensure compatibility.

You can use the conversion factor where 1 inch equals 2.54 centimeters to convert the inch values to centimeters. Here are the conversions:

  • 1/4 inch = 0.25×2.540.25 \times 2.540.25×2.54 = 0.635 cm
  • 3/8 inch = 0.375×2.540.375 \times 2.540.375×2.54 = 0.9525 cm

Navigating Google Sites: The Challenge of Setting Up a Naked Domain for Free

In the digital realm, setting up a website is akin to opening the doors to your virtual storefront. For many, Google Sites offers a simple, user-friendly platform to create and host websites. However, businesses and individuals looking to establish a professional online presence often prefer using a naked domain (e.g., example.com) over a subdomain (e.g., www.example.com). A naked domain, free of any prefix, not only provides a cleaner URL but also lends an air of credibility and brand strength. Unfortunately, due to Google’s policies, those hoping to use a naked domain with Google Sites for free will find themselves at a crossroads.

The Google Sites Conundrum

Google Sites, part of Google’s suite of tools, allows users to create and host websites without diving deep into the complexities of web development. While it simplifies the website creation process, Google imposes certain limitations regarding domain customization, especially concerning naked domains.

Google’s primary resource on this topic is a support guide detailing how to associate custom domains with Google Sites through the Google Admin Console (https://support.google.com/a/answer/2518373). The catch? Access to the Google Admin Console is gatekept behind G Suite (now Google Workspace) subscriptions, which do not offer free packages. This effectively means that Google does not support setting up a naked domain on Google Sites without incurring direct costs.

A Clever Workaround: Cloudflare to the Rescue

Facing this limitation does not mean the end of the road for those determined to use a naked domain with Google Sites at no extra cost. A workaround exists, thanks to Cloudflare, a web performance and security company that offers CDN services, DDoS mitigation, Internet security, and distributed domain name server services.

Step 1: Setting Up with Cloudflare

The first step in this workaround involves creating a Cloudflare account and adding your domain to it. Cloudflare provides a range of free services, including the ability to redirect traffic, which is crucial for our purpose.

Step 2: Configuring Page Rules

Once your domain is under Cloudflare’s management, the key to redirecting your naked domain to the www version (or any other subdomain) lies in Cloudflare’s Page Rules feature. Setting up a specific Page Rule allows you to redirect all traffic from your naked domain to the desired destination. Here’s how we did it for bytefreaks.net:

  1. We created a Page Rule for bytefreaks.net/*.
  2. In the settings, we selected the “Forwarding URL” option.
  3. We configured it to redirect to https://www.bytefreaks.net/.

This approach effectively routes visitors from the naked domain to the www subdomain without manual intervention, ensuring that the website remains accessible via the desired URL format.


While Google’s policies may limit the direct use of naked domains with Google Sites for free, innovative solutions like the one involving Cloudflare, highlight the possibilities of overcoming these restrictions. By leveraging Cloudflare’s Page Rules for URL forwarding, individuals and businesses can achieve their desired domain setup without incurring additional costs. This workaround exemplifies the creativity within the tech community and underscores the importance of flexibility in navigating the ever-evolving landscape of web development and hosting.

Enhancing KeePassXC with YubiKey on Ubuntu: Enabling the Raw-USB Interface

In digital security, combining hardware-based authentication devices like YubiKey with robust password management solutions such as KeePassXC represents a gold standard. YubiKey provides a physical, secure element for two-factor authentication, significantly enhancing security over traditional password-only systems. KeePassXC, a free and open-source password manager, allows users to manage their passwords securely. However, when running KeePassXC as a Snap package on Ubuntu, users may encounter an unexpected hurdle due to Snap’s inherent security and isolation features. This post aims to guide you through enabling your YubiKey hardware to work seamlessly with KeePassXC installed via Snap by manually allowing the raw-usb to interface.

Understanding the Challenge

Snap, a package management and deployment system developed by Canonical, allows for the consistent, secure distribution and installation of applications across different Linux distributions. Snap packages are containerized to ensure isolation from the rest of the system, enhancing security by restricting the application’s access to the host system’s resources and hardware interfaces.

While these isolation features benefit security, they can also impose limitations. Specifically, for KeePassXC users wishing to utilize a YubiKey for added security, Snap’s default restrictions prevent the application from accessing the USB hardware directly. This is where the raw-usb interface comes into play.

The raw-usb Interface

The raw-usb interface in Snap allows a snap-packaged application to communicate with USB hardware directly, bypassing the usual restrictions. By enabling this interface for KeePassXC, the application can interact with your YubiKey, utilizing it for secure two-factor authentication.

Step-by-Step Guide to Enabling the raw-usb Interface

  1. Open Your Terminal: First, access your terminal. You can do this by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T on your keyboard or searching for “Terminal” in your applications menu.
  2. Execute the Command: In the terminal, type the following command:
 sudo snap connect "keepassxc:raw-usb" "core:raw-usb"

This command instructs your system to enable the raw-usb interface specifically for KeePassXC. Here’s a breakdown of the command:

  • sudo: This prefix grants administrative (superuser) permissions for the operation, which is necessary for modifying system-wide settings.
  • snap connect: This is the command to link a Snap package to a specific interface.
  • "keepassxc:raw-usb": Specifies the KeePassXC snap package and the raw-usb interface within it.
  • "core:raw-usb": Refers to the raw-usb interface the core Snap provides, which grants access to USB devices.
  1. Enter Your Password: After entering the command, you’ll be prompted to enter your password. This is the password you use to log in to your Ubuntu account. Since you’re executing a command with sudo, your password is required to confirm that you have the necessary permissions to make system-level changes.
  2. Confirmation: If successful, you won’t see a detailed message; the lack of error messages typically indicates that the operation was successful. You’ve now enabled KeePassXC to access USB devices directly.

Testing the Configuration

After enabling the raw-usb interface, launch KeePassXC and attempt to use your YubiKey as part of your two-factor authentication setup. If everything is configured correctly, KeePassXC should recognize your YubiKey without any issues.


The security of your digital life is paramount in an era where online threats are increasingly sophisticated. By integrating YubiKey with KeePassXC on Ubuntu, you significantly enhance your digital security posture. The process of enabling the raw-usb interface for KeePassXC, while a bit technical, is a small step with significant benefits for your security setup. It exemplifies the balance between security and usability, allowing you to leverage cutting-edge security hardware without compromising on the convenience and ease of use offered by modern Linux distributions and applications.

Deep Dive into Wget: Mirroring Websites for Offline Access

In the realm of command-line utilities, wget stands out as a versatile tool for downloading files and websites from the internet. Whether you’re a developer, a researcher, or just someone looking to have offline access to web resources, understanding how to use effectively wget can greatly enhance your workflow. Today, we’re exploring a potent combination of flags: -mpEk, applied to mirroring the European Cyber Security Challenge (ECSC) website.

Understanding Wget

wget is a non-interactive network downloader that allows you to download web files. It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols and retrieval through HTTP proxies. It’s designed to be robust in handling transient network issues and can resume interrupted downloads, making it a reliable tool for comprehensive tasks like mirroring entire websites.

Breaking Down the Command: wget -mpEk https://challenges.ecsc.eu/

Let’s dissect the command wget -mpEk https://challenges.ecsc.eu/ to understand the role of each option:

  • -m (--mirror): This option turns on options suitable for mirroring websites, which includes infinite recursion depth, timestamping, and keeping the server’s directory listing, among other settings. It’s designed to make a replica of the site for offline viewing.
  • -p (--page-requisites): This tells wget to download all the files that are necessary to properly display a given HTML page. This includes such things as in-page images, stylesheets, and scripts.
  • -E (--adjust-extension): When saving files, wget will automatically adjust the extensions of HTML/HTML-like files (.html or .htm) to .html if they don’t already have one. This ensures that locally saved web pages are easily identifiable and accessible.
  • -k (--convert-links): After the download is complete, this option converts the links in the downloaded website, making them suitable for offline viewing. It adjusts links to images, stylesheets, and other web page components to point to local files.
  • https://challenges.ecsc.eu/: This is the URL of the website you want to mirror. In this example, it’s the homepage of the European Cyber Security Challenge, a notable event in the cybersecurity field.

Practical Applications

Why would someone want to use wget with these specific options? Here are a few scenarios:

  • Offline Viewing: For individuals who want to access the ECSC challenge website without an internet connection, perhaps for educational purposes or to ensure they have access to the content during travel.
  • Web Development: Developers might mirror a website to test website migration, analyze the structure of a website, or archive content before a major update.
  • Research and Archiving: Researchers or archivists may use wget to preserve digital content that’s at risk of being updated or removed.


The wget -mpEk https://challenges.ecsc.eu/ command showcases the power of wget for downloading and mirroring web content for offline use. By understanding and utilizing these options, users can efficiently archive entire websites, ensuring content is accessible regardless of their internet connectivity. Whether for professional use, educational purposes, or personal archiving, mastering wget commands like these opens up a world of possibilities for accessing and preserving online content.

This blog post aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the wget -mpEk command, making it accessible and understandable for readers who might not be familiar with command-line tools or the specific nuances of website mirroring.