To undo a
Git commit that was not pushed, you are given a few major options:
commit but keep all changes
unstage the changes
lose all changes
Method 1: Undo commit and keep all files staged
In case you just want to
commit and change nothing more, you can use
git reset --soft HEAD~;
This is most often used to make a few changes to your latest commit and/or fix your commit message. Leaves working tree as it was before
soft does not touch the index file or the working tree at all (but resets the
head to the previous
commit). This leaves all your changed files
Changes to be committed, as
git status would put it.
Method 2: Undo commit and unstage all files
In case you want to
undo the last
unstage all the files you can use the following
git reset HEAD~;
git reset --mixed HEAD~;
index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed files are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what has not been updated. This is the default action.
Method 3: Undo the commit and completely remove all changes
The following method will
revert all changes so that your state is exactly as it was before you started making changes.
git reset --hard HEAD~;
hard resets the index and working tree. Any
changes to tracked files in the working tree since the previous commit
Note: In case you just want to rewrite the
commit message, you could use git –amend instead.