C++


C/C++: Change position of bytes 1 and 2 with bytes 3 and 4 in a 32bit unsigned integer

The following function will produce a new 32bit value where bytes 1 and 2 were moved in place of bytes 3 and 4 and vice versa.

reorder-bytes.c (compressed) (59 downloads)

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

const unsigned int move_bytes_1_2_after_4 (const unsigned int input) {
  //We get the two leftmost bytes and move them to the positions of the two rightmost bytes.
  const unsigned int first_two_bytes = (input >> 16) & 0x0000FFFF;
  //We get the two rightmost bytes and move them to the positions of the two leftmost bytes.
  const unsigned int last_two_bytes = (input << 16) & 0xFFFF0000;
  //We combine the two temporary values together to produce the new 32bit value where bytes 1 and 2 were moved in place of bytes 3 and 4 and vice versa.
  return (first_two_bytes | last_two_bytes);
}

int main(void) {
  const unsigned int value = 0xABCD0123;
  printf ("Original: 0x%08x\n", value);
  const unsigned int modified = move_bytes_1_2_after_4(value);
  printf ("Modified: 0x%08x\n", modified);
  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

Executing the above code will produce the following output:

Original: 0xabcd0123
Modified: 0x0123abcd

reorder-bytes.c (compressed) (59 downloads)


C++ How to make cout not use scientific notation

To force cout to print numbers exactly as they are and prevent it from using the scientific notation, we can use the std::fixed I/O manipulator as follows

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

int main()
{
    std::cout << "The number 0.0001 in fixed:      " << std::fixed << 0.0001 << endl
              << "The number 0.0001 in default:    " << std::defaultfloat << 0.0001 << endl;

    std::cout << "The number 1000000000.0 in fixed:      " << std::fixed << 1000000000.0 << endl
              << "The number 1000000000.0 in default:    " << std::defaultfloat << 1000000000.0 << endl;
return 0;
}

Output

The number 0.0001 in fixed:      0.000100
The number 0.0001 in default:    0.0001
The number 1000000000.0 in fixed:      1000000000.000000
The number 1000000000.0 in default:    1e+09

C++: “undefined reference to” templated class function

In case you have a project where you use a templated class that is split in its own header (.h) and source (.cpp) files, if you compile the class, into an object file (.o), separately from the code that uses it, you will get the undefined reference to error at linking.

Lets assume we have Stack.cpp and Stack.h which define a templated stack using vectors. And main.cpp that uses this class after including Stack.h.

If you try to compile these files as mentioned above, one by one, later you will get a linking error saying undefined reference to for the methods of the class.

The code in the template is not sufficient to instruct the compiler to produce the methods that are needed by main.cpp (e.g. Stack<int>::push(...) and Stack<string>::push(...)) as the compiler does not know, while compiling Stack.cpp by itself, the data types it should provide support for.

The reason it allows you to compile these incomplete objects is the following:

  • main.cpp: the compiler will implicitly instantiate the template classes Stack<int> and Stack<string> because those particular instantiations are requested in main.cpp. Since the implementations of those member functions are not in main.cpp, nor in any header file included in main.cpp (particularly Stack.h), the compiler will not include complete versions of those functions in main.o and it will expect to find them in another object during linking.
  • Stack.cpp: the compiler won’t compile the instantiations of Stack<int> and Stack<string> neither as there are no implicit or explicit instantiations of them in Stack.cpp nor Stack.h.

So in the end, neither of the .o files contain the actual implementations of Stack<int> and Stack<string> and the linking fails.

Solutions

Solution 1 : Explicitly instantiate the template

At the end of Stack.cpp, you can explicitly instantiate all needed templates.
In our example we would add:


template class Stack<int>;
template class Stack<std::string>;

This will ensure that, when the compiler is compiling Stack.cpp that it will explicitly compile all the code needed for the Stack<int> and Stack<std::string> classes.

Using this method, you should ensure that all the of the implementation is placed into one .cpp file and that the explicit instantation is placed after the definition of all the functions (for example, at the end of the file).

A problem with this method is that it forces you to update the Stack.cpp file each time you want to add support for a new data type (or remove one).

Solution 2 : Move the implementation code into the header file

Move all the source code of Stack.cpp to Stack.h, and then delete Stack.cpp. Using this method you do not need to manually instantiate all possible data types that are needed and thus you do not need to modify code of the class. As a side-effect, if you use the header file in many other source files, it will compile the functions of the header file in each source. This can make compilation slower but it will not create any compilation/linking problems, as the linker will ignore the duplicate implementations.

Solution 3 : Move the implementation code into a new header file and include it in the original header file

Rename Stack.cpp to Stack_impl.h, and then include Stack_impl.h from Stack.h to keep the implementation in a separate file from the declaration. This method will behave exactly like Solution 2.


C: Code to time execution with accuracy greater than a second

The following application computes the time needed for a process to finish using the method clock().
The result of the application is the time in seconds as a floating number (where 1.0 = 1 second).
It provides greater accuracy than seconds as the estimation is done using processor time used by the program.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

int main()
{

    /* clock_t clock(void)
     The clock() function returns an approximation of processor time used by the program.
     The value returned is the CPU time used so far as a clock_t,
     to get the number of seconds used, divide by CLOCKS_PER_SEC.
     On error it returns -1. */
    const clock_t start = clock();

    /* svoid srand(unsigned int __seed)
     The srand() function sets its argument as the seed for a new sequence of pseudo-random
     integers to be returned by rand(). These sequences are repeatable by calling srand() with the
     same seed value.
     If no seed value is provided, the rand() function is automatically seeded with a value of 1. */
    /* time_t time(time_t *__timer)
     time() returns the time since the Epoch (00:00:00 UTC, January 1, 1970), measured in seconds.
     If the __timer variable is not NULL, the return value is also stored there. */
    srand(time(NULL));
    unsigned long i;
    for (i = 0; i < 10000000; i++)
    {
        /* int rand(void)
         The rand() function returns a pseudo-random integer in the range 0 to RAND_MAX inclusive. */
        rand();
    }
    const clock_t end = clock();

    /* ISO/IEC 9899:1999 7.23.1: Components of time
    The macro `CLOCKS_PER_SEC' is an expression with type `clock_t' that is
    the number per second of the value returned by the `clock' function. */
    /* CAE XSH, Issue 4, Version 2: <time.h>
    The value of CLOCKS_PER_SEC is required to be 1 million on all
    XSI-conformant systems. */
    const float seconds = (float) (end - start) / CLOCKS_PER_SEC;

    printf("Seconds elapsed %f\n", seconds);
    return 0;
}

C: Read a floating number that might be in the format of scientific notation

This code will read a floating number that might be in the format of scientific notation from the keyboard.
Then it will print out the number with the scientific notation and without it.


#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int main() {
  printf("This code will read a floating number that might be in the format of scientific notation from the keyboard.\nThen it will print it out with the scientific notation and without\n");
  double input;
  printf("Enter a number in scientific notation. (e.g. -4e-5 or -4.00e-5 or -4.00e-05 etc.)\n");
  scanf("%lf", &input);
  printf("With scientific notation '%e'\n", input);
  printf("Without scientific notation '%lf'\n", input);
  return 0;
}

Examples

This code will read a floating number that might be in the format of scientific notation from the keyboard.
Then it will print it out with the scientific notation and without
Enter a number in scientific notation. (e.g. -4e-5 or -4.00e-5 or -4.00e-05 etc.)
4.5e-10
With scientific notation '4.500000e-10'
Without scientific notation '0.000000'
This code will read a floating number that might be in the format of scientific notation from the keyboard.
Then it will print it out with the scientific notation and without
Enter a number in scientific notation. (e.g. -4e-5 or -4.00e-5 or -4.00e-05 etc.)
4.5e-3
With scientific notation '4.500000e-03'
Without scientific notation '0.004500'

asn1c: Generating code using ‘Automatic Tags’ and negative value as default value creates invalid function names

The following post is for the https://lionet.info/asn1c/ (repository: https://github.com/vlm/asn1c/)

When compiling the following ASN.1 data structure

GeographyModule DEFINITIONS AUTOMATIC TAGS ::= BEGIN

    Coordinates ::= SEQUENCE
    {
        -- latitude from -90 till 90 degrees --
        latitude INTEGER(-9000000..9000000) DEFAULT -8000000,
        -- longitude from -180 till 179.99999 degrees, worst precision 1.1132m at equator --
        longitude INTEGER(-18000000..17999999) DEFAULT -12000000
    }

END

the use of both the AUTOMATIC TAGS option and the use of a negative value -8000000 in the position of the default value causes asn1c to create invalid function names in the Coordinates object.

For example, the above ASN.1 syntax will produce the following invalid function name int asn_DFL_2_set_-800000(int set_value, void **sptr).

Compilation command for asn1c

From folder asn1c_gps/asn1 we used the following command:

/home/developer/asn1c/asn1c/asn1c -pdu=auto -S /home/developer/asn1c/skeletons/ -fcompound-names -gen-PER ../geography.asn1

Version of asn1c

'ASN.1 Compiler, v0.9.28'

Example

Full example code demonstrating the bug can be found here ( asn1c_gps - Full example - Demonstrating Bug (43 downloads) ).

If you want to use the code and see that all other operations are fine, replace _- with _minus_ in the file Coordinates.c and the code will become valid and usable.

After you perform the above change, you can use the code in main.cpp to see the our cycle of execution that encodes and decodes an object.


asn1c: Decoding an OCTET STRING with lower bound limit on its size fails for uper_decode()

The following post is for the https://lionet.info/asn1c/ (repository: https://github.com/vlm/asn1c/)

Hello guys,

I’ve noticed that when I set a lower bound limit on the size of an octet string, it fails to decode it.
To reproduce this scenario I created a small but full example that is located here( asn1c_image - Full example - Demonstrating Bug (61 downloads) ).

The example( asn1c_image - Full example - Demonstrating Bug (61 downloads) ) is an application that uses the code generated by asn1c and has the following behavior:

  1. It will read a name of a file from the command line
  2. read the file to memory
  3. convert it to an octet string using OCTET_STRING_fromBuf()
  4. encode it to an ASN.1 structure using uper_encode_to_new_buffer(), after asn_check_constraints() succeeds
  5. save the encoded data to a file for debugging (same folder as the original file)
  6. decode the buffer from memory using uper_decode()
  7. save the decoded data to a file (same folder as the original file)

Methodology

To create/view the bug use this ASN1 data structure as input to the asn1c compiler:

ImagesModule DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

 Image ::= SEQUENCE
 {
  data OCTET STRING SIZE (40..81920)
 }

END

To hide the bug, use:

ImagesModule DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

 Image ::= SEQUENCE
 {
  data OCTET STRING SIZE (0..81920)
 }

END

The only difference between the two versions is the use of a lower limit constraint on the size of the OCTET string.

Compilation command for asn1c

From folder asn1c_image/asn1 we used the following command:

/home/developer/asn1c/asn1c/asn1c -pdu=auto -S /home/developer/asn1c/skeletons/ -fcompound-names -gen-PER ../images.asn1

Version of asn1c

'ASN.1 Compiler, v0.9.28'

Samples

Inside the archive, there are two files [test_01.png, bad_data.bin].

  • test_01.png is larger than 80K so it should always fail.
  • bad_data.bin fails only when there is a lower bound limit on the size

asn1c_image - Full example - Demonstrating Bug (61 downloads)


C/C++: Full example of reading a whole binary file to buffer

The following example will read a binary in full and store it to a buffer in memory.

Read binary file to memory full example source code (compressed) (31 downloads)

We used the custom structure binary_data_t to store the data information.
This structure stores the pointer to the data and their size.

struct binary_data_t {
  long size;
  void *data;
};

In main.cpp we performed three tests

  1. Reading a file that exists and is not empty
  2. Reading a non-existing file
  3. Reading an empty file

Read binary file to memory full example source code (compressed) (31 downloads)

file_helpers.h


#ifndef GM_S_LITTLE_HELPERS_FILE_HELPERS_H
#define GM_S_LITTLE_HELPERS_FILE_HELPERS_H

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

typedef struct binary_data_t binary_data_t;
struct binary_data_t {
  long size;
  void *data;
};

binary_data_t * read_file(const char *filename);

#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif

#endif //GM_S_LITTLE_HELPERS_FILE_HELPERS_H

file_helpers.c


#include <stdio.h>
#include <malloc.h>
#include "file_helpers.h"


//Returns a binary_data_t structure if reading the file was OK.
//In case of an error it always returns NULL.
binary_data_t *read_file(const char *filename) {

  //Allocated our binary data structure
  binary_data_t *binary_data = malloc(sizeof(binary_data_t));
  if (binary_data != NULL) {

    binary_data->size = 0;
    void *buffer = NULL;
    long position;
    //Open the file for reading in binary mode
    FILE *fIn = fopen(filename, "rb");

    if (fIn != NULL) {
      //Go to the end of the file
      const int fseek_end_value = fseek(fIn, 0, SEEK_END);
      if (fseek_end_value != -1) {

        //Get the current position in the file (in bytes)
        position = ftell(fIn);
        if (position != -1) {

          //Go back to the beginning of the file
          const int fseek_set_value = fseek(fIn, 0, SEEK_SET);
          if (fseek_set_value != -1) {

            //Allocate enough space to read the whole file
            buffer = malloc(position);
            if (buffer != NULL) {

              //Read the whole file to buffer
              const long size = fread(buffer, 1, position, fIn);

              if (size == position) {
                binary_data->size = position;
                binary_data->data = buffer;

                fclose(fIn);
                return binary_data;
              }
              free(buffer);
            }
          }
        }
      }
      fclose(fIn);
    }
    free(binary_data);
  }
  return NULL;
}

main.cpp


#include <iostream>
#include "file_helpers.h"

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {

  //Testing a non-zero sized file
  //read_file() will return a binary_data_t where size will be non zero
  binary_data_t *binary_data_non_zero = read_file(argv[0]);
  //Testing for a non-existing file
  //read_file() will return a NULL pointer
  binary_data_t *binary_data_not_existing = read_file("some file that does not exist...");
  const char * filename = "/tmp/some_empty_file";
  //Creating an empty file
  FILE * fout = fopen(filename, "w");
  fclose(fout);
  //Testing for an empty file
  //read_file() will return a binary_data_t where size will be zero
  binary_data_t *binary_data_empty = read_file(filename);

  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

CMakeLists.txt

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.6)
project(GM_s_Little_Helpers)

set(CMAKE_CXX_STANDARD 11)

include_directories(${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR})

set(SOURCE_FILES main.cpp file_helpers.c file_helpers.h)
add_executable(GM_s_Little_Helpers ${SOURCE_FILES})

target_link_libraries(GM_s_Little_Helpers)

Read binary file to memory full example source code (compressed) (31 downloads)


asn1c: Full working example of ASN.1 in C/C++

The following project demonstrates a full working example of encoding and decoding ASN.1 structures using the asn1c compiler of http://lionet.info/asn1c/

In this project we assumed that we have to encode a set of geometric elements, including:

  • A rectangle that is composed by its height and its width
  • A rectangular cuboid that it is composed by a rectangle and a depth parameter
  • A list of rectangular cuboids that has no limit on how many elements to add to it
  • A list of rectangular cuboids that must have at least one element and at most three
  • We assume that all parameters should be positive integer values

ASN.1 C Full Example (compressed) (87 downloads)

Following is our ASN.1 syntax to describe the above elements:

Geometry.asn1

GeometryModule DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

Rectangle ::= SEQUENCE {
    height INTEGER (0..MAX),
    width INTEGER (0..MAX)
}

RectangularCuboid ::= SEQUENCE {
    depth INTEGER (0..MAX),
    rectangle Rectangle
}

UnlimitedRectangularCuboids ::= SEQUENCE OF RectangularCuboid

LimitedRectangularCuboids ::= SEQUENCE SIZE(1..3) OF RectangularCuboid

END

Inside the directory where our source is located, we created folder called geometryASN.
From that folder we executed the following command to generate the c code that is needed for our C/C++ source code to operate:

asn1c -fcompound-names -gen-PER ../Geometry.asn1

Following is our C source code that creates new ANS.1 elements, encodes them, decodes them and verifies that all limitations and constraints were met.

ASN.1 C Full Example (compressed) (87 downloads)

main.cpp


//From the folder geometryASN, to convert the ASN1 to c execute the following
// asn1c -fcompound-names -gen-PER ../Geometry.asn1
#include <iostream>
#include "geometryASN/Rectangle.h"
#include "geometryASN/RectangularCuboid.h"
#include "geometryASN/LimitedRectangularCuboids.h"
#include "geometryASN/UnlimitedRectangularCuboids.h"

bool validate_constraints(asn_TYPE_descriptor_t *type_descriptor, const void *struct_ptr) {

  char error_buffer[128];
  size_t error_length = sizeof(error_buffer);
  const int return_value = asn_check_constraints(type_descriptor, struct_ptr, error_buffer, &error_length);

  if (return_value) {
    perror("asn_check_constraints() failed");
  }
  return (return_value == 0);
}

void *encode_and_decode_object(asn_TYPE_descriptor_t *type_descriptor, void *struct_ptr) {

  //First we validate that our object meets the expected constraints
  if (validate_constraints(type_descriptor, struct_ptr)) {
    void *buffer;
    asn_per_constraints_s *constraints = NULL;
    //Then, we encode the object to ASN.1 and assign the data to a buffer in memory
    const ssize_t ec = uper_encode_to_new_buffer(type_descriptor, constraints, struct_ptr, &buffer);
    if (ec == -1) {
      perror("uper_encode_to_new_buffer() failed");
    } else {
      //ASN.1 encoded object is not in the buffer variable and it is available for you to use.
      //Finally, since the encoding process went fine, we decode the data to verify with our own eyes that the process went smoothly
      void *decoded_object = 0;
      const asn_dec_rval_t rval = uper_decode(0, type_descriptor, &decoded_object, buffer, (size_t) ec, 0, 0);
      free(buffer);
      if (rval.code != RC_OK) {
        perror("uper_decode() failed");
        fprintf(stderr, "Broken encoding at byte %ld\n", rval.consumed);
      } else {
        return decoded_object;
      }
    }
  }
  return NULL;
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {

  //Scenario A: We test basic encoding and decoding on a Rectangle.
  {
    //First we create a rectangle and then we encode it
    Rectangle_t *rectangle = (Rectangle_t *) calloc(1, sizeof(Rectangle_t));
    if (rectangle == NULL) {
      perror("calloc() failed");
      exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    rectangle->height = 10;
    rectangle->width = 150;

    Rectangle_t *decoded_rectangle = (Rectangle_t *) encode_and_decode_object(&asn_DEF_Rectangle, rectangle);

    if (decoded_rectangle != NULL) {
      if (rectangle->height != decoded_rectangle->height || rectangle->width != decoded_rectangle->width) {
        perror("uper_decode() failed. Wrong values found after decoding");
        ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_Rectangle, rectangle);
        ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_Rectangle, decoded_rectangle);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
      }
    }
    ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_Rectangle, rectangle);
    ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_Rectangle, decoded_rectangle);
  }

  //Scenario B: We test basic encoding and decoding on a Rectangle.
  //We will provide a value that is out of the constraints area to force the test to fail.
  {
    //First we create a rectangle and then we encode it
    Rectangle_t *rectangle = (Rectangle_t *) calloc(1, sizeof(Rectangle_t));
    if (rectangle == NULL) {
      perror("calloc() failed");
      exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    rectangle->height = -10;
    rectangle->width = 150;

    Rectangle_t *decoded_rectangle = (Rectangle_t *) encode_and_decode_object(&asn_DEF_Rectangle, rectangle);

    if (decoded_rectangle != NULL) {
      perror("This test should have failed due to the constaint on the range of the valid values.");
      ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_Rectangle, rectangle);
      ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_Rectangle, decoded_rectangle);
      exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_Rectangle, rectangle);
  }

  //Scenario C: We test basic encoding and decoding on a Rectangular Cuboid.
  {
    //First we create a rectangular cuboid and then we encode it
    RectangularCuboid_t *rectangular_cuboid = (RectangularCuboid_t *) calloc(1, sizeof(RectangularCuboid_t));
    if (rectangular_cuboid == NULL) {
      perror("calloc() failed");
      exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    rectangular_cuboid->depth = 27;
    rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.height = 10;
    rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.width = 150;

    RectangularCuboid_t *decoded_rectangular_cuboid = (RectangularCuboid_t *) encode_and_decode_object(
        &asn_DEF_RectangularCuboid, rectangular_cuboid);

    if (decoded_rectangular_cuboid != NULL) {
      if (rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.height != decoded_rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.height
          || rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.width != decoded_rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.width
          || rectangular_cuboid->depth != decoded_rectangular_cuboid->depth) {
        perror("uper_decode() failed. Wrong values found after decoding");
        ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_RectangularCuboid, rectangular_cuboid);
        ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_RectangularCuboid, decoded_rectangular_cuboid);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
      }
    }
    ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_RectangularCuboid, rectangular_cuboid);
    ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_RectangularCuboid, decoded_rectangular_cuboid);
  }

  //Scenario D: We will create an array of elements that has no limitation on its size.
  {
    UnlimitedRectangularCuboids_t *unlimited_rectangular_cuboids = (UnlimitedRectangularCuboids_t *) calloc(1,
                                                                                                            sizeof(UnlimitedRectangularCuboids_t));
    if (unlimited_rectangular_cuboids == NULL) {
      perror("calloc() failed");
      exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {       RectangularCuboid_t *tmp_rectangular_cuboid = (RectangularCuboid_t *) calloc(1, sizeof(RectangularCuboid_t));       if (tmp_rectangular_cuboid == NULL) {         perror("calloc() failed");         exit(EXIT_FAILURE);       }       tmp_rectangular_cuboid->depth = i;
      tmp_rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.height = i * 11;
      tmp_rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.width = i * 101;

      const int result = asn_set_add(unlimited_rectangular_cuboids, tmp_rectangular_cuboid);
      if (result != 0) {
        perror("asn_set_add() failed");
        ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_UnlimitedRectangularCuboids, unlimited_rectangular_cuboids);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
      }
    }

    UnlimitedRectangularCuboids_t *decoded_unlimited_rectangular_cuboids = (UnlimitedRectangularCuboids_t *) encode_and_decode_object(
        &asn_DEF_UnlimitedRectangularCuboids, unlimited_rectangular_cuboids);

    if (decoded_unlimited_rectangular_cuboids != NULL) {
      for (i = 0; i < decoded_unlimited_rectangular_cuboids->list.count; i++) {
        RectangularCuboid_t *tmp_rectangular_cuboid = decoded_unlimited_rectangular_cuboids->list.array[i];
        if (tmp_rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.height != i * 11
            || tmp_rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.width != i * 101
            || tmp_rectangular_cuboid->depth != i) {
          perror("uper_decode() failed. Wrong values found after decoding");
          ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_UnlimitedRectangularCuboids, unlimited_rectangular_cuboids);
          ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_UnlimitedRectangularCuboids, decoded_unlimited_rectangular_cuboids);
          exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
      }
    }
    ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_UnlimitedRectangularCuboids, unlimited_rectangular_cuboids);
    ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_UnlimitedRectangularCuboids, decoded_unlimited_rectangular_cuboids);
  }

  //Scenario E: We will create an array of elements that has a limitation on how many elements it can accept.
  //We will add more elements than expected and we expect the encoding to fail.
  {
    LimitedRectangularCuboids_t *limited_rectangular_cuboids = (LimitedRectangularCuboids_t *) calloc(1,
                                                                                                      sizeof(LimitedRectangularCuboids_t));
    if (limited_rectangular_cuboids == NULL) {
      perror("calloc() failed");
      exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {       RectangularCuboid_t *tmp_rectangular_cuboid = (RectangularCuboid_t *) calloc(1, sizeof(RectangularCuboid_t));       if (tmp_rectangular_cuboid == NULL) {         perror("calloc() failed");         exit(EXIT_FAILURE);       }       tmp_rectangular_cuboid->depth = i;
      tmp_rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.height = i * 11;
      tmp_rectangular_cuboid->rectangle.width = i * 101;

      const int result = asn_set_add(limited_rectangular_cuboids, tmp_rectangular_cuboid);
      if (result != 0) {
        perror("asn_set_add() failed");
        ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_LimitedRectangularCuboids, limited_rectangular_cuboids);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
      }
    }

    LimitedRectangularCuboids_t *decoded_limited_rectangular_cuboids = (LimitedRectangularCuboids_t *) encode_and_decode_object(
        &asn_DEF_LimitedRectangularCuboids, limited_rectangular_cuboids);

    if (decoded_limited_rectangular_cuboids != NULL) {
      perror("This test should have failed due to limitation on the size of the list.");
      ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_LimitedRectangularCuboids, limited_rectangular_cuboids);
      ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_LimitedRectangularCuboids, decoded_limited_rectangular_cuboids);
      exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    ASN_STRUCT_FREE(asn_DEF_LimitedRectangularCuboids, limited_rectangular_cuboids);
  }

  printf ("All tests were successful\n");
  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

ASN.1 C Full Example (compressed) (87 downloads)


C/C++: Full example using a linked list with custom struct

The following code is an example that presents some basic functionality on simply linked lists. Specifically, it presents how to add an element to an empty list and then how to add more elements either to the start (prepend) or to the end (append) of the list.

list_helpers.c (compressed) (38 downloads)

We assume that our structure holds an integer and a dynamically created string, which we free after pop.

list_helpers.c (compressed) (38 downloads)

 

Source file (list_helpers.c)

#include <malloc.h>
#include "list_helpers.h"

void append(node_t **head, element_t *element) {

  struct node_t *new = malloc(sizeof(node_t));
  new->element = element;
  new->next = NULL;

  if (*head == NULL) {
    *head = new;
    return;
  }

  struct node_t *current = *head;

  while (current->next != NULL) {
    current = current->next;
  }

  current->next = new;
  return;
}

void prepend(node_t **head, element_t *element) {
  struct node_t *new = malloc(sizeof(node_t));

  new->element = element;
  new->next = *head;
  *head = new;
}

element_t *pop(node_t **head) {

  node_t *next = NULL;

  if (*head == NULL) {
    return NULL;
  }

  next = (*head)->next;
  element_t *element = (*head)->element;
  free(*head);
  *head = next;

  return element;
}

void clear(node_t **head) {
  element_t *current = pop(head);
  while (current != NULL) {
    free(current->username);
    free(current);
    current = pop(head);
  }
}

Header file (list_helpers.h)

#ifndef GM_S_LITTLE_HELPERS_LIST_HELPERS_H
#define GM_S_LITTLE_HELPERS_LIST_HELPERS_H

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

typedef struct element_t element_t;
struct element_t {
  //We add random members to the element struct for the sake of the example
  char *username;
  unsigned int server;
};

typedef struct node_t node_t;
struct node_t {
  element_t *element;
  node_t *next;
};

void append(node_t **head, element_t *element);

void prepend(node_t **head, element_t *element);

element_t *pop(node_t **head);

void clear(node_t **head);

#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif

#endif //GM_S_LITTLE_HELPERS_LIST_HELPERS_H

Usage example (main.cpp)

#include <iostream>
#include "list_helpers.h"

element_t *create_user(const unsigned int server, const char *username) {

  element_t *user = (element_t *) malloc(sizeof(element_t));
  user->server = server;

  //For the sake of the example we used snprintf.
  //Upon successful return, snprintf returns the number of characters printed (excluding the null byte used to end output to strings).
  //For that reason we add one at the end of the length.
  const int length = snprintf(NULL, 0, "%s", username) + 1;
  user->username = (char *) malloc((sizeof(char) * length));
  snprintf(user->username, (size_t) length, "%s", username);
  return user;
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {

  node_t *head = NULL;

  //Add the first element to the linked list
  append(&head, create_user(10, "xeirwn"));

  //Add the second element to the end of the linked list
  append(&head, create_user(12, "test"));

  //Add the third element to the end of the linked list
  append(&head, create_user(14, "banana"));

  //Add the fourth element to the beginning of the linked list
  prepend(&head, create_user(8, "apple"));

  //Popping each one to process it and then free it
  //Clearing the list
  element_t *current = pop(&head);
  while (current != NULL) {

    printf("%s\t%u\n", current->username, current->server);
    free(current->username);
    free(current);
    current = pop(&head);
  }

  //Safely clear the list. In this specific scenario it will have 0 side effects as the list was cleared above
  clear(&head);
  return 0;
}
list_helpers.c (compressed) (38 downloads)